Biology Chemistry Math &Physics Guess Papers 2023

Physics 12th Important Guess Papers 2023

Coulomb’s law, Gauss’s law with the application, Electric potential, parallel plate capacitor S. Q 12.3, 12.5, 12.7, 12.9 Pb. 1,4,5,6,7,13

Ch#13: Ohms law, the effect of temp on resistance, Wheat stone bridge, Potentiometer, s.q 2, 4,5,6,8 Pb. 1,2,4,5

Ch# 14: Amperes law, force on moving charge in M.F, e/m of electron, galvanometer s.q 8,9,10,11,12,14,15, pb.1,2,4,5,7,9

Ch#15: Faradays law, Lenz’s law, energy stored in an inductor, transformer, s.q 1,8,9,10,12,14,16,18 pb, 3,4,7,11,14,15,17,18

Ch#16: A.C, RLC series &parallel, Electromagnetic waves s.q 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 pb.3, 4 6, 7, 8, 9, 10

Ch#17: Classification solid, strain energy, magnetic prop reties, hysteresis loop sq5, 8, 9, 10, 11, Pb.1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Ch#18: Rectification, transistor as amplifier, inverting non-inverting, night switch, s.q 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 11, pb.1

Ch#19: Relativity theory, photoelectric, Einstein views, de Broglie wave, uncertainty

Physics Important Long Questions

Chapter 12

Columb’s law -Electric Running Through a surface enclosing a charge-Electric Potential Due To A Point Charge -Millikan’s Experiment -Capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor -Energy Stored In A Capacitor

Chapter 13

Resistivity and its dependence upon Temperature -Rheostat -KMF and potential difference -Kirchhoff’s Rule (Both) Wheatstone bridge -Potentiometer

Chapter 14 –

Force On a Current-Carrying Conductor -Amper’s Law and its applications -Force on A moving Current, Determination of An E/M of an electron -Torque on a Current-Carrying Cell

Chapter 15

Motional EMF -Faraday’s Law -Mutual induction of self-induction -Energy Stored in an Inductor -AC Generator

Chapter 16

AC Through Resistor, Capacitor, Inductor -RC & RL Series Circuit -Series Resonance Circuit

Chapter 17

Energy Band Theory

Chapter 18

Transistor As An Amplifier -OP- Amplifier As An inverting or non-inverting

Chapter 19

Special Theory Of Relativity -Photoelectric Effect -Compton Effect -Uncertainty Principle -Davison Of A Germer Experiment

Chapter 20

Bohr’s Atomic Model -Quantized Radii & Energies -Hydrogen Emission Spectrum -Uncertainty within Atom

Chapter 21

Only Numerical Related to Half-Life Short Questions from Exercise…..Short Questions from Exercise

Physics Important Numerical

Ch12: 12.1,3,4,5,6,7,10

Ch13: 13.1,2,4,5

Ch 14: 14.1,2,3,4,5,7

Ch.15: 15.1,3,4,5,6,7,11,14,15, 16

Ch.16: 16.1,3,4,6,7,8,9

Ch 17: 17.1,2,3,4,5

Ch.18: 18.1

Ch.19: 19.2,3,5,7,9,10

Ch 20: 20.2,3,4,5,6,8

Chapter 21

Only numerical related to half-life

Biology 12th Important Guess Papers 2023

Short Questions

  1. What is lithotripsy? (LB-2018)
  2. What are pyrogens? (LB-2008, 2013)
  3. What is a hypertonic environment and what changes occur in a cell in such an environment? (OR) Differentiate between hypotonic and hypertonic environments. (LB-2010, 2012, 2016)
  4. What are osmoconformers and osmoregulation? (LB-2011)
  5. What is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy? (LB-2014)
  6. What are flame cells? Give their role. (OR) What are flame cells? Why they are called so? (LB-2014)
  7. Write the structural formula of urea and uric acid. (LB-2010, 2012)
  8. Define homeostasis. Give its importance. (LB-2011, 2013)
  9. Define anhydrobiosis with an example. (LB-2012, 2014, 2018)
  10. Differentiate between poikilotherms and homeotherms. (LB-2012, 2013)
  11. Differentiate between ectotherms and endotherms. (LB-2009, 2014)
  12. Differentiate between hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. (LB-2018)
  13. Differentiate between xerophytes and mesophytes. (OR) What are xerophytes? Give two adaptations of xerophytes. (LB-2012)
  14. Draw and label the urea cycle. (LB-2018)
  15. What is sciatica? (OR) What are sciatica and its causes? (LB-2009, 2010, 2016)
  16. What is foreman periosteum? (OR) What is foreman periosteum? How it is formed? (LB-2010, 2015)
  17. What is the role of the vascular cambium? (LB-2011, 2012)
  18. What is an axial skeleton? (LB-2012)
  19. What is meant by passive and active flight? (OR) Differentiate between active and passive flight. (LB- 2012, 2013)
  20. What is rickets? Give its causes and cure. (OR) How is rickets produced? (LB-2012)
  21. What is the herniation of discs? (OR) Define disc-slip. (OR) What are the causes of herniation of discs? (LB-2010, 2011, 2013)
  22. What is the difference between tetanus and muscle tetany? (LB-2018)
  23. What is the difference between an exoskeleton and an endoskeleton? (OR) What is the composition of the exoskeleton? (LB-2015)
  24. What is effective and recovery stroke? (OR) Differentiate between effective and recovery stroke. (LB- 2016)
  25. What are plantigrade and unguligrade? (OR) What are plantigrade, digitigrade, and unguligrade mammals? (LB-2017)
  26. Characterize collenchyma cells. (LB-2011, 2012)
  27. Compare phototropism and geotropism. (LB-2017)
  28. Compare the hinge joint with the ball and socket joint. (LB-2012, 2018)
  29. Define antagonistic movement of muscles. (LB-2018)
  30. Discuss two main types of cartilage. (LB-2013)
  31. Differentiate between compact bone and spongy bone. Give only two differences. (LB-2018)
  32. Distinguish between the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. (LB-2008, 2014)
  33. Distinguish between the phototactic and chemotactic movements. (OR) What is phototactic movement?(OR) What is chemotactic movement? (LB-2015)
  34. Differentiate between the origin and insertion of the muscle.
  35. Differentiate between ligament and tendon. (LB-2018)
  36. Explain two types of nastic movements. (OR) Compare epinasty and hyponasty. (LB-2012, 2013, 2016)
  37. Enlist some of the functions of the skeleton. (LB-2015)
  38. Name the different types of cells associated with bones. (LB-2014)
  39. What is innate behavior? (LB-2016)
  40. What is the role of the hypothalamus? (LB-2016)
  41. What is a synapse? (LB-2011)
  42. What are axons and dendrites? (OR) How axons differ from dendrites. (LB-2009, 2010, 2014)
  43. What is a reflex arc? (OR) Differentiate between a reflex action and the reflex arc. (LB-2012, 2014, 2018)
  44. What is the difference between CNS and PNS? (LB-2012, 2016)
  45. What is the function of the parathyroid gland or parathormone? (LB-2008, 2013, 2016)
  46. What is Parkinson’s disease? (OR) Differentiate between Parkinson’s and Epilepsy. (LB-2009, 2012, 2018)
  47. What are gastrin and secretin? (OR) Give the functions of secretin and gastrin. (OR) Name the two hormones of the gut. (LB-2010, 2013)
  48. Write the function of photoreceptors and nociceptors. (LB-2014)
  49. Define saltatory impulse. (OR) Define saltatory impulse and synapse. (LB-2001, 2011)
  50. Define feedback mechanism. (LB-2018)
  51. Differentiate between etiolation and chlorosis. (OR) What is chlorosis? (LB-2018)
  52. Differentiate between active and resting membrane potential. (LB-2018)
  53. Give two commercial applications of Gibberellins. (LB-2011, 2014, 2018)
  54. What is the action of nicotine on coordination? (LB-2011-2015)
  55. What is parthenocarpy? (OR) Define parthenocarpy with examples. (OR) How does parthenocarpy differ from parthenogenesis? (LB-2010, 2011, 2013)
  56. Write down at least two important measures to prevent AIDS. (LB-2013)
  57. What are Oviparous, Viviparous, and Ovoviviparous animals? (OR) Give the difference between Oviparous and Viviparous animals. (OR) What are Ovoviviparous animals? Give examples. (OR) Differentiate between oviparity and viviparity. (LB-2008, 2009, 2012, 2013)
  58. Classify the plants according to the photoperiodic requirements for flowering. (OR) Name types of plants according to photoperiodism. (LB-2013, 2015)
  59. Define photoperiodism and write its effects in plants. (OR) Give the importance of photoperiodism in plants. (LB-2011, 2016)
  60. Define apomixes. (OR) What is meant by apomixes? (OR) What are apomixes (LB-2014, 2018)
  61. Define vernalization. (OR) What is vernalization? (LB-2012, 2018)
  62. Differentiate between haploid parthenogenesis and diploid parthenogenesis. (OR) Define diploid parthenogenesis. (OR) Define diploid parthenogenesis. Give an example. (LB-2012)
  63. Differentiate between internal and external fertilization. (LB-2018)
  64. Differentiate between identical twins and fraternal twins. (OR) How identical twins and fraternal twins are produced? (LB-2010, 2013)
  65. How can you differentiate between the menstrual cycle and the estrous cycle? (OR) Define/ Explain the estrous cycle. (LB-2014)
  66. How test-tube babies are produced? (OR) What are test-tube babies (LB-2009, 2014)
  67. What do you mean by open growth? (LB-2011, 2012)
  68. What is neurula? (OR) What is neuronal? (LB-2015)
  69. What is gastrococel and from which germ layer it is originated? (LB-2013)
  70. What is meant by discoidal cleavage? (LB-2016)
  71. What is meristem? (OR) Define meristem. Name its types based on position. (OR) Describe various types of meristems. (OR) What is apical meristem? (OR) What are intercalary meristems? Give their role. (OR) What do you mean by lateral meristem? (LB-2013, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)
  72. What is the difference between epiblast and hypoblast? (LB-2017)
  73. Briefly describe the external and internal factors that affect growth in plants. (LB-2009)
  74. Define aging and write its symptoms. (OR) Give symptoms of aging. (OR) What are the important signs of aging in human beings? (OR) What are the causes of aging and how aging can be slowed down? (LB- 2014)
  75. Define organizer and inducer substance. (OR) What are primary organizers and inducer substances? (LB-2009, 2013)
  76. Define regeneration with examples. (LB-2011)
  77. Differentiate between gerontology and teratology. (LB-2010)
  78. Differentiate between growth and development. (OR) Define growth. (LB-2010, 2016, 2017)
  79. Differentiate between primary and secondary growth. (LB-2018)
  80. Give the name of the two sheets-like layers into which mesoderm splits and name the cavity formed between these. (OR) Differentiate between somatic and splanchnic mesoderm. (LB-2012, 2013)
  81. How does the final size of cells of the cortex and tracheids is attained in the zone of maturation? (LB-2013)
  82. How notochord is formed in chick embryos? (LB-2011)

 Second Portion

  1. What is semi-conservative replication of DNA? (LB-2015)
  2. What are the contributions of P.A. Levene for determining the structure of DNA? (LB-2017)
  3. What is alkaptonuria? (OR) What is phenylketonuria? (OR) Differentiate between alkaptonuria and phenylketonuria.
  4. What is central dogma? (LB-2018)
  5. What is a genetic code? (OR) What are non-sense codons? (OR) Enlist non-sense codons and their function. (OR)
  6. Where codon and anticodon are situated? (LB-2012, 2014, 2018)
  7. What is heterochromatin? (OR) What is euchromatin? (OR) Differentiate between heterochromatin and euchromatin. (LB-2016, 2018)
  8. What is mutation? (OR) What do you mean by mutations? (OR) Define mutation and differentiate between chromosomal aberration and point mutation. (LB-2010, 2013, 2017)
  9. What is phosphodiester linkage? Draw structural formula. (OR) What is a phosphodiester bond or linkage? (LB-2013, 2015, 2016)
  10. Define chromosomal theory of inheritance. (LB-2010, 2014)
  11. Define karyotype. (OR) What is a karyotype? (OR) What do you mean by karyotype? Give its significance. (LB-2014)
  12. Define nucleosome. (LB-2012)
  13. Define nucleotide and nucleoside. (LB-2017)
  14. Define one gene/one polypeptide hypothesis? (LB-2017)
  15. Define point mutation. (OR) State point mutation with examples. (OR) Define point mutations. Give one example. (LB-2012, 2014, 2018)
  16. Define transcription and how it is initiated? (OR) What is the function of RNA polymerase in transcription? (LB-2010, 2013)
  17. Differentiate between sense and anti-sense strands of DNA. (LB-2018)
  18. Give the role and kinds of tRNA. (LB-2013)
  19. What is Necrosis? (LB-2014)
  20. What is Klinefelter’s syndrome? (LB-2016)
  21. What are the apparent symptoms or effects of Down’s syndrome? (OR) What is Down’s syndrome? (OR) Describe the causes and symptoms of Down’s syndrome. (OR) Write symptoms of Down’s syndrome. (LB-2014, 2018)
  22. What are the symptoms of Turner’s syndrome? (OR) How Turner’s syndrome is caused and gives its features. (OR) What is Turner’s syndrome? (LB-2013, 2014)
  23. What is mitotic apparatus? (OR) What is mitotic apparatus? Give its functions. (LB-2013, 2016, 2018)
  24. Define cell cycle. (LB-2015,2017)
  25. Define meiosis and mitosis. (OR) What is the importance of mitosis and meiosis? (LB-2017)
  26. Differentiate between Go-phase and S-phase of interphase. (OR) Differentiate between interphase and mitotic phase. (OR) Describe changes that occur during G1-phase. (LB-2011, 2012, 2016)
  27. Give two main importance of meiosis. (LB-2013)
  28. How can you identify cancer cells? (OR) Cancer is uncontrolled cell division, explain. (LB-2011)
  29. In what respects does mitosis in plant cells differ from that in animal cells? (OR) Explain cytokinesis in plants. (OR) How cytokinesis occur in plants? (LB-2010, 2018)
  30. What is Bombay phenotype? (LB-2016, 2017)
  31. What is MODY? (LB-2008, 2015, 2016)
  32. What are the genes and alleles? (LB-2016)
  33. What is the role of blood groups in establishing parentage? (LB-2010)
  34. What is meant by universal blood donor and universal recipient?
  35. What is crossing over? What is its importance? (LB-2013)
  36. What is bean-bag genetics? (OR) What is a gene pool? (OR) Differentiate between gene and gene pool. (LB-2014)
  37. How does ABO incompatibility protect the developing baby against Rh- incompatibility? (LB-2011, 2012)
  38. What is meant by linkage, linked genes, and linkage groups? (OR) What is a linkage group? (OR) Define linkage group by giving examples. (OR) What are linkage groups? Give their number to human beings. (OR) Define gene linkage and gene linkage groups (LB-2012, 2013, 2015, 2018)
  39. What is a test cross? Why did Mendel suggest this cross? (OR) Give the significance of the test cross. (OR)What is a test cross? Give its uses. (LB-2011, 2012, 2013, 2018)
  40. What is the difference between heterogametic and homogametic individuals? (OR) What is a heterogametic individual? Give example. (LB-2018)
  41. What are compound sex chromosomes and their example? (LB-2013)
  42. Define the laws of Mendel. (OR) Define Mendel’s law of segregation (law of purity of gametes). (OR) Define the law of segregation. (LB-2015, 2018)
  43. Differentiate between incomplete dominance and co-dominance. (LB-2012)
  44. Differentiate between autosomes and sex chromosomes. (LB-2011)
  45. Differentiate between homozygous and heterozygous. (LB-2011, 2014, 2016)
  46. Differentiate between allele and multiple alleles? (OR) What are multiple alleles? Give example. (LB- 2014)
  47. Differentiate between dominance and epistasis. (OR) What is epistasis? How it differs from dominance? (LB-2010, 2012, 2018)
  48. Differentiate between sex-limited and sex-influenced traits. (OR) What are sex-limited traits? (OR) What are sex-influenced traits? (OR) What are the sex-limited traits? Give an example. (LB-2008, 2009, 2013, 2017, 2018)
  49. Distinguish between polygenes and pleiotropy. (OR) Define pleiotropy. (OR) What are pleiotropy and its example? (LB-2013)
  50. Give the concept of the fixed allele. (LB-2012)
  51. How sex determination occurs in yeast? (LB-2017)
  52. What is a probe? (LB-2014)
  53. What is gene pharming? (LB-2018)
  54. What are Palindromic sequences? (LB-2013, 2016, 2018)
  55. What are the various methods of a gene or DNA sequencing? (LB-2016)
  56. What are the two goals of the Human Genome Project? (LB-2016, 2018)
  57. What are transgenic plants? (OR) Give two advantages of transgenic plants. (LB-2011, 2014, 2015)
  58. What is Ex-vivo gene therapy? (OR) Differentiate between Ex-vivo and In-vivo gene therapy. (LB- 2016, 2017)
  59. What is a genome and genomic library? (OR) Differentiate between genome and genomic library. (OR)Define genomic library. (LB-2016, 2018)
  60. What is totipotency? (OR) What is a totipotent cell? (OR) Define the term totipotent. (OR) Why plant cells are said to be totipotent? (LB-2014, 2017)
  61. Define biotechnology. Give its application. (LB-2016)
  62. Define Molecular scissors. (OR) What are restriction enzymes? Give example. (OR) Differentiate between molecular scissors and molecular vectors? (LB-2009, 2018)
  63. What is the role of molecular carrier-the vector? (OR) Differentiate between plasmids pSC 101 and PBR 322? (OR) Elaborate on the use of plasmids. (OR) Mention the role of lambda phage during recombinant DNA (LB-2012, 2013, 2014, 2017)

Third Portion

  • What is genetic drift? (LB-2010, 2011, 2012)
  • What are hydrothermal vents? How do they support life?
  • What is modern synthesis/ Neo-Darwinism? (OR) Give the concept of Neo-Darwinism. (LB-2012, 2014)
  • Write the name of theories of evolution presented by Lamarck and Darwin. (LB-2011)
  • What are vestigial organs? Name some important vestigial organs of man. (OR) What are vestigial organs? Give one example (LB-2010, 2012, 2014, 2018)
  • Define fossil. Where are most of the fossils found? (LB2014)
  1. Define endangered species. (OR) What are endangered species? Give examples. (OR) Differentiate between endangered and threatened species. (LB-2018)
  2. Define Hardy Weinberg Theorem and give its equation in the form of the binomial expansion. (LB-2013)
  3. Differentiate between homologous and analogous organs. (OR) Define homologous organs by giving examples
  4. (LB-2011, 2012)
  5. What is ammonification? (LB-2010)
  6. What is assimilation? (LB-2014)
  7. What is grazing? How grazing affect the texture of soil? (OR) Define grazing. How grazers affect the ecosystem?
  8. (LB-2008, 2010)
  9. What is a biome? (OR) Differentiate between biome and biosphere?
  10. Define predation. (OR) Give the significance of predation. (LB-2012, 2016)
  11. Define succession and name its types. (LB-2014)
  12. Define biogeochemical cycles. (OR) What are biogeochemical cycles? (LB-2012)
  13. Define the productivity of an ecosystem and differentiate between gross primary production and net primary production. (LB-2008)
  14. Define ecosystem. Write its components. (OR) Define ecosystem. (LB-2012, 2016)
  15. Define biosphere. (OR) What is the biosphere? (OR) Define biosphere and ecosystem. (LB-2014, 2015, 2018)
  16. Define parasitism. Give its significance. (OR) Differentiate between predation and parasitism. (LB- 2009, 2012)
  17. Define commensalism. Give one example. (OR) Define commensalism with the help of an example. (LB-2013, 2018)
  18. Define food chain and food web. (OR) Define the food chain by giving an example. (LB-2010, 2012, 2013, 2015)
  19. Differentiate between population and community. (LB-2014)
  20. Differentiate between habitat and niche. (OR) Define niche. (OR) Explain ecological niche. (LB-2011, 2012, 2013)
  21. Differentiate between autecology and synecology. (OR) What is synecology? (OR) What is autecology? (LB-2011, 2013, 2018)
  22. Differentiate between micro and macronutrients? (LB-2010)
  23. Differentiate between consumers and decomposers. (OR) What are consumers? (LB-2014)
  24. Differentiate between hydrosere and xerosere. (LB-2015, 2017)
  25. Differentiate between primary and secondary succession. (OR) How primary succession differ from secondary succession? (LB-2012, 2017)
  26. What is the composition of air of the terrestrial ecosystem? (LB-2012)
  27. What is the effect of human impact on the Tundra ecosystem? (LB-2013)
  28. What is the range of rainfall and temperature in Temperate Deciduous Forest (OR) Discuss animal life of temperate deciduous forest? (LB-2012)
  29. What is meant by layering in a grassland ecosystem? (OR) Give the layering characteristics of grassland. (LB-2013)
  30. What is a profundal zone? Give its one character. (OR) What type of organisms is present in the profundal zone of the lake? (LB-2018)
  31. Differentiate between Alpine and Boreal forests. (LB-2009, 2018)
  32. Differentiate between Zooplankton and Phytoplankton. (LB-2008, 2011)
  33. Differentiate among littoral, limnetic and profundal zone. (OR) Characterize littoral zone of freshwater lakes. (OR) What is limnetic zone mention its life? (LB-2013, 2014)
  34. Enlist two adaptations in plants and two in animals for a terrestrial ecosystem. (OR) Give two adaptations of the terrestrial ecosystem. (LB-2010, 2012)
  35. Give the name of some major ecosystems on land in Pakistan.
  36. Give the location of the Tundra ecosystem in Pakistan. (LB-2014)
  37. Mention the characteristics of plant life in desert ecosystems. (LB-2013)
  38. What is acid rain? (LB-2013)
  39. What is Ozone? (OR) Give the importance of the ozone layer. (LB-2017)
  40. Write names of various types of pollution. (LB-2011)
  41. What are the main sources of water pollution? (OR) Give main causes of water pollution. (LB-2012, 2015)
  42. Write the causes and effects of ozone depletion? (OR) Give the effects of ozone depletion on life. (LB- 2012)
  43. What are solid wastes and how these can be used as sources of energy? (OR) Give importance to solid waste.
  44. What do you mean by non-renewable resources? (OR) What are renewable resources? Give examples. (OR) Differentiate between renewable and non-renewable resources. (LB- 2011, 2013, 2014, 2016, 2018)
  45. What measures should be taken for the conservation of energy? (OR) How we can save energy? Mention any four ways in which we can save energy. (OR) Write four ways of energy conservation? (LB-2014, 2017)
  46. What is deforestation? (OR) What is afforestation? (OR) What is reforestation? (OR) What is the difference between deforestation and afforestation? (OR) Differentiate between afforestation and reforestation. (OR) What is the difference between deforestation, afforestation, and reforestation? (LB- 2014, 2015)
  47. Define the greenhouse effect.
  48. Describe abuses of land. (LB-2012)
  49. Define soil and give its basic constituents. (OR) What is soil? (OR) What is soil? Give its basic constituents. (LB-2016, 2018)
  50. Differentiate between Population Explosion and Population Pressure. (OR) Enlist some reasons of Population Explosion in the world also describe Population Pressure. (OR) Write the reasons for the world Population Explosion. (OR) What do you mean by Population Explosion and give its two causes? (LB- 2010,2013,2014)
  51. How is air important to live as a source? (LB-2012)
  52. Why trees are called environmental buffers? (OR) Define environmental buffers

Long Question

  1. Write a note on osmoregulation in marine fishes. (LB-2014)
  2. Write down the structure of a nephron. (LB-2012)
  3. Discuss excretion in cockroaches. (LB-2016)
  4. Describe various kidney problems and their cure in humans. (OR) Discuss kidney problems in humans. (LB-2008, 2010)
  5. Explain excretion in plants. (OR) Describe the excretion in plants. (LB-2012, 2013, 2014, 2018)
  6. Write a note on grazing. (LB-2014)
  7. Write a note on the nitrogen cycle. (LB-2011, 2012, 2015, 2016)
  8. Discuss the flow of energy in the food chain of an ecosystem. (LB-2018)
  9. Explain the biotic component of an ecosystem. (LB-2012)
  10. What are the joints? Describe their types. (OR) Define and explain briefly the fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial joints. (LB-2012, 2013)
  11. What is an endoskeleton? Describe bone and cartilage. (LB-2016)
  12. What is the Sliding Filament Model of muscle contraction? What does it explain? (LB-2018)
  13. Write a note on the human appendicular skeleton. (LB-2016)
  14. Write down the mechanism of muscle contraction. (LB-2011)
  15. Describe the significance of secondary growth. (LB-2015)
  16. Explain about exoskeleton in Arthropods. (LB-2012)
  17. Explain the role of Calcium ions in the process of the Sliding Filament Model. (LB-2010)
  18. Give an account of paratonic movement in plants. (LB-2015)
  19. What are chromosomes? What do you know about their number, karyotype, types, and shapes? (OR) Describe types of chromosomes on the basis of centromere. (LB-2015, 2017)
  20. Describe the Watson-Crick Model of DNA in detail. (LB-2013, 2014)
  21. Write any four differences between nervous and chemical coordination. (LB-2018)
  22. Define and explain the feedback mechanism?
  23. Define and explain nerve impulses. (OR) Describe initiation of nerve impulse. (LB-2014)
  24. Discuss the nervous system of Hydra. (OR) Compare the nervous system of Hydra and Planaria. (OR) The nervous system of Hydra is better developed than Planaria. Discuss. (LB-2012, 2013, 2016)
  25. Write a note on the greenhouse effect. (LB-2011)
  26. Write a note on deforestation and afforestation. (OR) Describe deforestation. (LB-2013, 2018)
  27. Write a note on ozone layer depletion. (LB- 2012)
  28. What is pollution? Explain the phenomenon of air pollution. (LB-2017)
  29. Write a note on test-tube babies. (LB-2016)
  30. Compare asexual reproduction with sexual reproduction. (OR) Give a comprehensive comparison between asexual and sexual reproduction. (LB-2012, 2015)
  31. Diseases with the help of examples. (OR) Explain Sexually Transmitted Diseases in humans. (LB-2014, 2016, 2017)
  32. What is epistasis? Explain it with an example of the Bombay phenotype. (LB-2013)
  33. What is incomplete dominance? Explain it with an example. (LB-2012, 2013)
  34. Define and explain multiple alleles. (OR) Describe the multiple allelic blood group systems of man. (OR) Discuss the genetics of the ABO blood group system. (OR) Explain the ABO blood group system. (LB- 2012, 2018)
  35. Define and explain sex-linkage in Drosophila. (LB-2015)
  36. Describe Mendel’s law of segregation (law of purity of gametes) (OR) Define Mendel’s law of segregation. Explain it with one example. (OR) What is Mendel’s law of segregation? Illustrate it with an example (LB-2011, 2016)
  37. Define Mendel’s law of Independent Assortment. Explain it with an example.
  38. What is growth? Discuss different phases of growth in plants. (OR) Discuss different phases of plant growth.
  39. (LB-2014)
  40. What is aging? Explain its process. (OR) Define and explain aging. (OR) What is aging? How would you explain this process? (OR) What is aging? Describe its causes and symptoms. (LB-2013, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018)
  41. Explain the role of the nucleus in development. (OR) Describe the role of the nucleus in development.
  42. (LB- 2010, 2017)
  43. How comparative embryology supports the process of evolution. (OR) Describe comparative embryology and molecular biology as evidence of evolution. (LB-2018)
  44. Describe the evidence of evolution from Biogeography and fossil record. (LB-2008)
  45. Discuss evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. (LB-2011)

2nd-year Complete MCQs

Azeem Academy 2nd Year Physics Past papers Guess UP To Date Smart Paper Smart Solution – MDCAT BY FUTURE DOCTORs – Touseef Ahmad khan



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Physics Guess Paper- XII-SOLVED Short Questions 

Best Wishes to All the students of the 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th classes for best performance in the exams.

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